sun tzu art of War chpt 1 laying plans

  1. Sun Tzu said: The art of war is of vital importance to
    the State.
  2. It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safe￾ty or to ruin. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can
    on no account be neglected.
  3. The art of war, then, is governed by five
    constant factors, to be taken into account in one’s delib￾erations, when seeking to determine the conditions
    obtaining in the field.
  4. These are:
    (1) The Moral Law;
    (2) Heaven;
    (3) Earth;
    (4) The Commander;
    (5) Method and discipline.
    5,6. The Moral Law causes the people to be in com￾plete accord with their ruler, so that they will follow
    him regardless of their lives, undismayed by any dan￾ger.
  5. Heaven signifies night and day, cold and heat, times
    and seasons.
  1. Earth comprises distances, great and small; danger
    and security; open ground and narrow passes; the
    chances of life and death.
  2. The Commander stands for the virtues of
    wisdom, sincerely, benevolence, courage and strict￾ness.
  3. By method and discipline are to be understood the
    marshaling of the army in its proper subdivisions, the
    graduations of rank among the officers, the mainte￾nance of roads by which supplies may reach the army,
    and the control of military expenditure.
  4. These five heads should be familiar to every gener￾al: he who knows them will be victorious; he who
    knows them not will fail.
  5. Therefore, in your deliberations, when seeking to
    determine the military conditions, let them be made the
    basis of a comparison, in this wise:—
  6. (1) Which of the two sovereigns is imbued with the
    Moral law?
    (2) Which of the two generals has most ability?
    (3) With whom lie the advantages derived from
    Heaven and Earth?
    (4) On which side is discipline most rigorously
    enforced?
    (5) Which army is stronger?

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